Archive for June, 2010

Teaching Strategies to Educate Gifted Children

An assignment paper by Pratiwi Wini Artati

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I used Skype and connected it with landlines and cell phone.

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If only prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination were totally diminished from this world, needless to say that peace is something that we could always breathe in and out easily, effortlessly. If only everyone did not overemphasizing differences, everybody will live in harmony by putting aside all differences and paid more attention the commonality and similarity that tightens the values of humanity. We often hear and imagine this will come true. Yet, the world is filled with discrimination in almost every aspect in human life. One can be discriminated because of having different religion, sexual orientation, race, ideology, physical ability, and so forth. The discrimination practices are still a problem for the reason as follows:

“It is problematic because it categorizes and classifies, serves to no positive purposes and mostly used negatively. Though the law protects the people and we are to be treated equally, it is the people’s minds that won’t change and what is causing this problem to still go on” (Rothernberg, 2005, p. 1)”.



Posted: June 15, 2010 in Personal-Me
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As a growing force, informal learning appears to favor further attention and exploration with its potential and valuable contribution to the dynamic of learning in the 21ct century (The Teaching Firm, 1998). At the onset, the growth of technology and its implementations and practices have transformed learning into a multidimensional paradigm. This multidimensional paradigm of learning enables a wider range of instructional design and approaches – providing variety of ways and models to approach where meaningful learning can best implemented and achieved. One of the models is experienced-based learning or object-based learning provided by museum for informal learning practices. However, based on studies and research findings about museum and its role informal learning, I argue that exhibit designers of the museum need to develop extensive opportunities for thinking design to amplify experience and object based learning platform for a more effective instructional performance in informal learning practices. The need to develop extensive opportunities for thinking design occurs due to the fact of “anatomical” milieu – museums do not typically provide visitors with opportunities to try out an activity, skill, or interest because of the briefness visiting design and often the design of exhibit environment makes it hard to think. Therefore, I reiterate my hypothesis that exhibit designers of the museum need to develop extensive opportunities for thinking design to amplify experience and object based learning platform for a more effective instructional performance in informal learning practices.


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What is Instructional Design? What are principles of learning and instruction underlying the concept of instructional design? How have instructional design been evolved? These questions are a prerequisite to explore further about the field of instructional design that serves as a basic foundation towards the values in instructional design. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to synthesize fundamental elements of the instructional design where it stands as preliminary step to gain better understanding with the holistic approach towards the model of instructional design.

Instructional design is considered as having significant impact in learning. Within the process of learning, it is important for learners to fully be aware that learning occurs within the leveling of understanding in which it involves a systematic process, even in the simplest form of learning. Furthermore, to really comprehend what instructional design is, we need to step back a little while to look at the root of by thoroughly defining what’s essential in the field of instructional design. Thereby, in addressing the first question “what is instructional design?” it is particularly clear that we have two schemes framing this field: instructional and design. Understanding the first essential part of the instructional design – instructional, what matters is step by step process where the goal instruction is the main code of conduct. A clear goal is obligatory within a set of instruction because it determines the success of the instruction. In fact, a clear goal will as well play an important role in providing the first base for the development process of learning within the instruction itself in which it will “affect learners in such a way that learning is facilitated” (Gagne, Briggs, Wager, 1992, p. 3).


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I have been told that I’m broken in some way and I’m less of a woman because I’m not yet there in saying “I do”.
I have been told that I’m only worth something as a woman, or thought of as a ‘complete’ woman, when I’m attached to a man, get married, and have children on my own.
I have been told that the aura of being single shows that I’m miserable and lonely and my life is tragic.
I have been told that it’s no use to stay single because my work won’t love me back and my eggs will dry up.

I have also been told by my single male buddies that people “discriminate” them for staying single, perceiving them as horny, slovenly, and irresponsible, and the scary criminals. Or sometimes are sexy, fastidious, frivolous, and gay.


Well oh well, this time I have to agree with a social psychologist from Harvard that “this stigmatizing of people who are single—whether divorced, widowed, or ever single—is the twenty-first-century problem that has no name. I’ll call it singlism” (Bella DePaulo, PhD, 2007)

Marriage,to me personally, is a choice not an obligation. It is not something I would do just because people told me I’m running old.

To me as well, having sex, giving birth to a baby, is again, a choice – not an obligation that most people would agree that it will define your complete worth as a woman.

But wait, don’t get me wrong!


The influence of media in learning has provided basis for researchers and practitioners to a quest towards certain targeted media where learning experience is determined by the active interaction between media and the learners. It is still a quest because research about media and instructional technology which related to media studies has yet providing consistent findings about the effect of media to learning. Several research present findings that support positive effect from media while several others did otherwise: the absence of effect to learning or even the presence of the negative effect to learning.

Surrounding the inconsistent notion from previous and current research as such will give us a flashback to a sharp debate between Richard Clark and Robert. B. Kozma. What is interesting in this debate is how Clark through his published first article Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media in 1983 started his hypothesis that media does not influence learning. Eight years later in 1991, Kozma responded to Clark’s claims through his article entitled Learning with Media where he summarized research related to “media attributes working in conjunction with learning methods to influence the way learner’s information processing (Clark 2001, p. 137 – 138). From here, Kozma elaborated his key ideas that media has evolved in such away where it gives a whole new paradigm to learning where he further expands Clark’s previous claim into a more context-based question “in what ways can we use the capabilities of media to influence learning for particular students, tasks, and situation? (Clark 2001, p. 195)”

Along with the development of technology and its variety of application in learning combined with how the new paradigm of learning has been evolving as new generation termed as digital natives have contributed to how teaching and learning in the 21st century is being practiced, I personally believe that the influence of media is no longer a “vehicle” as what Clark aforementioned, in fact, it has become an active formula that has vastly infused as a complementary instrument towards learning. According to Jonassen, et al (1999) and Hede (2002) asserts that if a channel serves a function as a complementary instrument towards the delivered information, it indicates to the learning improvement. Adding to that, Kozma emphasizes on learning as the active process that enables media to interact with learners in compliance with the instructional strategy/method to construct knowledge. In advance, Kozma points out to the ability of learners in actively managing their learning process by extracting information stored in long term memory and integrating new information with it to construct knowledge (Clark, 2001).


A presentation presented at the MECA 2008 Conference, Jackson, MS

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